Sponge Gourd and Ridge Gourd
Other Name:- Sponge Gourd – Chikni Torai, Nanua, Ghiya Torai,
Ridge Gourd- Jhingli Torai, Kali Torai
Botanical Name: Sponge gourd: Luffa cylindrica
Ridge gourd: Luffa acutangular
Chromosome Number: 2n=26
Origin: Asia (India)
- The sponge gourd fruits contain higher protein and carotene than ridge gourd.
- Both the species contain a gelatinous compound called ‘luffein’.
- Anthesis time 4:30-7:00AM.
- The fibre of dry fruits is also used as bathing sponge.
- Both are monoecious in nature.
Area and production
Sponge gourd grown worldwide like Brazil, Mexico, Ghana and India. But ridge gourd cultivation is restricted to India only. Ridge gourd and sponge gourd are commonly grown throughout India particularly in states like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat etc.,
- Ridge gourd contains 95.20 gm moisture, 0.5gm protein, 3.0 gm carbohydrates, 37mg carotene and 18mg vitamin C per 100g edible portion.
- The genus derives its name from the product ‘loofah’, which is used in bathing sponges, scrubber pads, doormats, pillows, and mattresses and also for cleaning utensils.
- Juice of Ridge gourd is beneficial for diabetic patients.
- Seed oil from sponge gourd is used to cure skin diseases.
Pusa Nasdar: Early variety, IARI
CO 1: Early Vairety TNAU
Satputia: Hermaphrodite, produces smaller fruits in clusters
Konkan Harita: KKV, Dapoli (MH)
Punjab Sadabahar: PAU
IIHR 8: IIHR, Bengalore, fruits are round, moderately resistant to downy mildew
PKM 1: suitable for kharif and summer seasons
Swana Manjari: Tolerant to powdery mildew.
Arka Sujat: Hybrid variety
Surekha: Hybrid variety
Pusa Chikni: IARI
Phule Prajakta: MPKV, Rahuri (MH)
Pusa Supriya: IARI
Pusa Sneha: IARI
Kalyanpur Hari Chikani
Harita: F1 Hybrid
PRG-7: New Released variety
crops can be grown on a variety of soil types. Loamy soils rich in organic matter and well drained are considered best. Soil should have good moisture-holding capacity especially in summer season. Optimum pH is 5.5 to 6.7.
It requires long and warm climate. Humid warm climate is preferable. Optimum temperature is 24 to 370 C. It grows best in rainy season. Due to its hard seed coat, there is a problem with seed germination when the temperature is low. Excessive rainfall during the flowering and fruiting period reduces the yield considerably. Long day length promotes femaleness.
Time of sowing:
In North Indian conditions summer season crop is sown during February to March. In south India rabi crop is sown during the months of December. Rainy season crop is grown in June to July. However, in hilly regions optimum time of sowing is April to May.
Seeds Rate and Seed Treatments
- Seed rate for ridge gourd is 3.5-5.0kg/ha and that of sponge gourd is 2.5-3.5kg/ha.
- The seed colour of sponge gourd are white and that of ridge gourd are black.
- The seeds are soaked in water for 12-24 hours before sowing to improve germination.
Preparation of Field
Field are plough two to three time for better soil tilth. As per requirement of the crop the raised beds, furrows or pits are prepared and field is kept ready for planting.
Spacing is 1.5 to 3 m is kept in rows and 60 to 120 cm between plants. Two seeds per hill in the case of raised beds and three to four seeds per pits are sown.
Manure and Fertilizers
Table: Recommended dose of NPK for some states are
Farmyard manure 10-15 tonnes/ha, super phosphate, potash and the half nitrogen should be applied as a basal dose or at the time of sowing and one-half nitrogen should be given as top dressing after one month of planting.
First irrigation may be given just after sowing later frequent irrigation once in 4 to 5 days are given. Flowering and fruit development are susceptible to soil moisture stress. Rainy season crop requires no irrigation if there is good rain fall.
The crop is kept weed free during the entire growth period. Weeding should be done 20-25 days after the sowing. The second weeding may be done 25-30 days after the first one.
Increase female flowers and Yield
Foliar spray of these growth regulators at two and four leaf stage.
Training and pruning
The early crop can be allowed to trail on the bed itself. Commercial crop is trained on a kniffen system. The crop is trained when the seedlings are about 10-15cm tall.
The crop is ready for first harvest about 60 days after planting. Fruits attain marketable maturity in 5 to 7 days after anthesis. Fruits should be harvested when they are still immature and tender. Picking should be done every 3-4 days. If there is delay in harvesting, the fruits become more fibrous and are unfit for human consumption. Fruits can be stored at 3 to 4 days at room temperature.
Average yield of sponge and ridge gourds in summer season and rainy season crops are 100 -125 quantal / ha and 125-150 quantal/ha respectively.
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