Identification of Fruit and Plantation Crops.
Propagation: Both by seeds and vegetative means through slips. Slip propagation is better in Andhra Pradesh. Seed propagation covers a larger area.
Seeds are sown at 10 kg per ha. Nursery beds are prepared and sowing is done during April – May. After sowing nursery beds are lightly irrigated. Seedlings will be ready in 60-75 days.
Slips: Mature clump is divided. Slips are treated for rooting. Rooted slips are used for propagation.
Planting: Land is thoroughly ploughed, leveled. Land laid into ridges and furrows. Planted with the onset of monsoon at 60 x 45 cm. 2-3 seedlings or slips are planted per hill.
Due to irregularities in Meiosis, viable seeds are not formed. Therefore citronella is propagating through slips, obtained by dividing healthy mature clumps. Each slip should have 2-3 tillers. At the time of planting trim fibrous roots and leaves. One ha citronella produces enough planting material i.e. slips for planting in 20 ha of the main field.
Planting: The best time is during the southwest monsoon. In A.P., planting is done from July- August. Spacing adopted is 60 x 60 cm requiring 28,000 slips per ha. If climate and soil support luxurious growth 90 x 90 cm is followed as in the upper Assam. Slips are planted vertically in 10 cm deep pits either on ridges or flatbeds. As it is extremely sensitive to waterlogging, plant on ridges. Irrigate immediately after planting. Keep the soil moist for 3 -4 weeks, within which it gets established.
By seed and rooted slips. First, a nursery is raised. Beds are raised well prepared and well manured. Seeds @ 2.5 kg per ha are sown at 15-20 cm spaced lines.
Sowing is done during May – June. Nursery beds are irrigated daily. Germination will be completed within 2 weeks and seedlings ready in 30-40 days (15-20 cm height).
Slips: Slips are collected from the elite clump. They are separated and planted during April – May. Ready for transplanting after 3 months during June- July or August – September. Oil yield is higher with clonal propagation. Percent of establishment is higher with seedlings.
Land preparation: Plough 3-4 times. The land is laid out into ridges & furrows spaced at 60 cm.
Planting: Planted during June- July at 45 cm apart on ridges. Irrigate immediately.
Plough repeatedly in all directions to achieve fine tilth up to 60 cm. All vegetation, roots, tubers are thoroughly removed. Level the field layout into beds of 100 square meters. In these beds, ridges and furrows are laid out.
Vetiver can be propagated through tillers and slips. Tillers take a long time, hence slips are preferred. Collect slips from the previous crops.
Propagation: Propagated by seeds and highly cross-pollinated
Nursery: Generally nursery is laid down on raised beds with 200-300 g seeds/ha. Seeds germinate within 8-12 days and seedlings are ready 6 weeks or at 4-5 leaf stage
Transplanting: Spacing 40 x 40 cm 40x 50 cm and 50 x 30 cm.
Propagation: 2 methods
- Directly sowing the seed
- Raising seedlings
Seeds are directly broadcasting with a seed rate of 10-12 kg/ha during the second week of July.
Nursery raising and planting:
Seedlings are raised in a raised nursery bed with 5 kg seed to provide ha. Seeds treated with fungicide and seeds sown in nursery spaced at 5 cm. Germination in 6-7 days and six weeks seedlings are ready for transplanting with a spacing 60 x 60 cm.
Propagation: Root suckers or rhizome cuttings
Planting: 15-18 cm long root suckers, rhizome cuttings are planted with a spacing of 60 x 30 cm or 60 x 45 cm and buried 2/3 portion under the ground.
Seed Rate and Planting
The plant is propagated from seeds. Seeds can be sown directly in the field or the plants raised in the nursery and transplanted later on. Direct sowing is to be done for plantations of a large area, as it reduces the cost of sowing. About 2 to 3 kg seed is required for raising one hectare. The seeds are mixed with sand about 10 times their weight for even distribution and are sown during the beginning of the monsoon in rows 45 cm apart. When the plants grow up, they are thinned out leaving a distance of 25 to 30 cm between the plants.
For nursery sowing and transplanting, about 500 grams of seed sown in 200 square meters bed is required for producing seedlings for one hectare. The seeds are sown in well-prepared beds during March or April in rows about 1.5 cm deep, covered with light soil and leaf mould mixture, and are watered to keep the bed moist.
In about 10 days time the seeds germinate and in 2 months time (height 6-7 cm), they become ready for transplanting. In the field, the seedlings are transplanted at a spacing of 45 cm x 30 cm or 45 cm x 45 cm.
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