Horticulture Guruji


Fruit Science

बेल / बील/ बिलवा / Bengal quince / Indian quince / Golden Apple  

B.N. – Aegle marmelos

Family – Rutaceae

Origin – India

Ch. No. – 18

Fruit type – Amphisarca

Edible part – Succulent placenta

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Important point

  • Raw or half-ripe fruit contains 31.3% – 31.8% carbohydrate, 1.8% protein, and 2.9% fiber.
  • The best source of Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin).
  • Marmelosin – the active ingredient present in Bael, extracted from the bark.
  • Leaves are used for offering to ‘Lord Shiva’
  • It is a sacred tree of Hindus.
  • Ripe green fruits are ideal for harvesting.
  • It can tolerate sodicity up to 30ESP and salinity up to 9EC.
  • Ripe fruits are used to make beverages.
  • Ripe green or unripe fruits are best suited for making preserves.
  • 90C temperature and 90% relative humidity are suitable for storage.
  • Cultivated in the eastern part of the Gangetic plains, UP, Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, etc.


  • Kagzi Gonda
  • Kagzi Etawah
  • Kagzi Banarasi
  • Mirzapuri
  • Narendra Bael – 5
  • Narendra Bael – 9
  • NB- 16
  • NB-17
  • NB- 7
  • Chakiya
  • Deoria large
  • Baghel
  • CISHB-1
  • CISHB-2
  • Pant Aparna
  • Pant Sujata
  • Pant Shivani
  • Pant Urvashi
  • Goma Yashi
  • Thar Neelkanth


  • Subtropical trees but can also grow in the tropics.
  • It can be grown to a height of 1200 m.
  • It withstands temperature as low as – 80C and high 480C
  • Is drought resistant.


  • Well-drained, humus-rich loamy soil with a pH of 5.5 to 7.5.
  • Bael is a very hardy tree and grows in all types of soil.


  • Bael is commercially propagated by patch budding and seed.
  • The best time for patch budding is June to July.


  • Planting is done from June to July at the beginning of the rainy season.
  • Planting distance 8x8m or 10x10m. is kept.
  • Pits of size 60-75 cm3 are dug.

Manures and Fertilizers

  • Practically there is no manure and fertilizer given to bael.
  • Application of manure definitely helps in flowering and fruiting.
  • Apply 30 kg FYM per year at the onset of monsoon.
  • Also, 500 grams of nitrogen given in two splits of 250 grams each in February and again in June.


  • Irrigation is done from time to time in the first year of planting.
  • Irrigation once or twice after fruit set helps in better fruit retention, size, and quality.

Training & Pruning

  • New plants require staking, initially, for uprightness.
  • Lateral branches are allowed to grow above a height of one meter above the ground.
  • Zigzag or criss-cross branches should be removed.


  • Shallow hoeing at the end of the monsoon will keep weeds under control.

Flowering and Fruiting

  • Seeded plants bear fruit at the age of 7-8 years, while budded plants start bearing fruit in 4-5 years.
  • It starts flowering in May and gives fruit in late May to June.
  • It takes about 10 months for the fruits to mature.


  • Bael fruits are climacteric and, therefore, should be harvested at full maturity.
  • Delay in harvesting leads to cracking of fully ripe fruits on the trees.
  • Fruits ripen in April and May in North India.


100-150 small fruits or 50-75 fruits (large)

Insect and Diseases

  • No serious pests or diseases are found in the bael.
  1. Canker (Xanthomonas bilvae)

On the affected part of leaves, twigs, thorns, and fruits appear as a clear circle on the affected area.


  • The affected part should be removed and destroyed.
  • Spray 1% Bordeaux mixture or streptomycin sulfate (200ppm).

References cited

  1. Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
  2. A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
  3. Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu

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