B.N. – Punica granatum
Family – Punicaceae
Origin – Iran
Ch. No. – 2n=18 (Basic no. 9 or 8)
Inflorescence – Hypanthodium
Fruit type – Balausta
Edible part – Juicy seed coat
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- Daru – Wild type
- Maximum area and production Maharashtra (Area 147.91 thousand hectares and production 1789 thousand metric tons).
- Highest productivity – Tamil Nadu.
- According to the NHB database 2018, the area and production of pomegranate are 234 thousand hectares and 2845 thousand metric tonnes respectively.
- It is a non-climacteric fruit tree.
- Wind (Anemophilous) Pollinated.
- Mix bearing habit.
- The problem of cracking of fruits is more during the Mrig Bahar season.
- Mostly Multistem training system is used in India.
- Highly drought tolerant.
- Pomegranate juice is useful for leprosy patients.
- Summer crop is in maximum demand.
- Covering fruits with butter paper bags protect the fruit from damage by the Anar butterfly (Virachola Isocrates).
- July – August is the ideal time for planting in tropical regions.
- NRC – Pomegranate – Solapur (MH)
- Paper shelled
- Muskati Red
- Spanish Ruby
- Bassein Seedless
- Jalore seedless
- Country large red.
- Ganesh (GB1) – Selection from Alandi, popular in MH, Developed by Dr. G.S. Cheema
- G-137, G-107, – Clonal selection from Ganesh.
- P-26, P-16, P-13 – Seedling selection from muskat
Mridula – Ganesh x Gul – e -Shah red
Jyoti – Bassein seedless x Dholka
Ruby – Ganesh x Kabul x Yercard
Amlidana – Ganesh x Nanha, Dwaff, TSS 12.60 Brix (IIHR)
Soft-seeded var. – Jyothi, Ganesh, Bassein seedless, Paper shell.
Hard seeded – Khandhari, Alandi
- It is a tropical plant and grows up to an altitude of 2000 m.
- A hot and dry climate enhances the quality of fruits.
- Loamy or alluvial soil is best
- Can also be cultivated in slightly alkaline and lime-rich soil.
- Pomegranate is commercially propagated by air layering and hardwood cutting.
- Cutting is prepared in North India in spring and in South India in monsoon.
- Air layering is done during the rainy season.
- Before the onset of the monsoon, pits of 60 to 75 cm are dug at a distance of 4X4m, 3X2.5m, or 4X2m.
- The best time for sowing pomegranate is the monsoon season.
Manure and fertilizers
- FYM – 20 kg/plant
- 240:160:60 grams/plant N:P: K
- Use fertilizers for
- Ambe Bahar – December-January
- Mrig Bahar – May-June
- Hastha Bahar – October-November.
- Give light and regular irrigation during fruiting time.
- Irrigation is required at an interval of 10-12 days till the onset of monsoon.
- Pomegranate can tolerate salt water (500-1000 ppm).
Interculture and Intercropping
- Shallow cultivation should be done to reduce weeds.
- During the first 4 to 5 years, do intercropping with vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, peas, beans, etc.
Training and Pruning
In this case, 3-4 stems are left on each plant and the remaining branches are removed, resulting in the growth of the plant in a bushy form.
All lateral shoots are removed and only one stem is left. The main stem is pinched above a height of about one meter resulting in branching. Only 4-5 branches well distributed on all sides are allowed to grow at a distance of about 60-70 cm from the ground level.
Water sprouts, weak crotch, dead twigs, old spurs are pruned.
Flowering and fruiting
A mature pomegranate plant has a tendency to flower and bear fruit throughout the year.
Bahar regulation/treatment – This is done by withholding water supply 60 days before normal flowering, exposure of the root, and also using chemicals.
- Mrig Bahar – June-July (flowers)
- Ambe Bahar – February – March (flowers)
- Hasta Bahar – September – October (flowers)
- Fruits are ready for harvesting 5 to 7 months after flowering.
- When ripe fruits turn slightly yellow and then pink to red.
- A metallic sound is produced when the fruit is tapped and a ‘crunch’ sound is heard when pressed.
80-120 fruit/plant or 16-20 kg/plant
Pomegranate butterfly or Anar fruit fly (Virachola isocrates)
The female lays eggs on a cluster of flowers and small fruits. Hatching caterpillars bore inside the developing fruit and are eaten from the inside. Affected fruits fall down.
- Collect and destroy all affected fruits.
- Spray Metacid or Carbaryl 0.2% or Phosphomidon 0.03%
Bark Eating caterpillar (Inderbela tetraonis)
The pest bore into the bark of the pomegranate tree and feeding inside.
- Avoid overcrowding of trees by removing unwanted twigs.
- Inject kerosene oil or petrol and plug the hole with cotton wool.
Fruit rot (Phomopsis sp.)
Flowers in affected plants do not bear fruit and young fruits may drop. Symptoms appear with yellow or black spots all over the fruit.
- Remove and burn all affected twigs, fruits.
- Spray with Dithane Z-78 0.2%
Leaf spot (Xanthomonas punicae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)
Xanthomonas punica causes irregular water-soaked spots on leaves. They are light brown to dark brown in appearance, with no spots on twigs, branches, or fruits.
- Collect and destroy fallen leaves and fruits.
- Spraying of 0.2% Dithane M-45 or Captan at 15 days intervals.
The cracked fruits are also liable to be invaded by certain fungi and bacteria.
- Boron deficiency in young plants
- Moisture stress condition created due to irregular irrigation or irregular rains
- Sudden fluctuations in day and night temperatures.
- Spray 0.1% Borax
- The regular supply of soil moisture through light irrigation.
- Plant windbreak around the pomegranate orchard.
- Use resistant varieties.
- Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
- A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
- Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu