To study the irrigation methods in fruits and plantation crops
Check Basin Method
In this system in between two rows of trees, an irrigation channel is prepared. The channel is then jointed through the square or rectangular-shaped beds. The bed contains more than one tree.
This system is practiced in newly planted orchards. Taking the plants in the centre, an irrigation channel of 20 cm depth and 60cm width is prepared. There is water saving in this system, as only a limited area is wetted.
Ring basin system
A circular ring in the periphery of the plant is prepared to irrigate the plants. While preparing, care is taken that the ring is prepared away from the trunk towards the outer periphery of the tree. In between two ring basins, a subchannel connecting the ring basin of the tree is prepared. The water flows through the central channel and moves ahead naturally after flooding two-ring basins at a time. This is a very suitable method of irrigation grown-up trees in the orchard where ample water is available.
A basin proportionate to the size of the tree is prepared. The basins are then connected with each irrigation channel. The water moves ahead after irrigating individual basins of the tree. Hence, there is fear of the spread of disease through water if any tree in the basin is diseased. Basin occupies very less area and the very large area remains unoccupied which can be used for inter-cultivation.
This system is very simple and easiest to practice. The water is allowed for irrigation without making any beds, basins, or any other configuration as in other methods. The water floods the entire field. This system requires more quantity of water to irrigate the field as the entire field is wetted.
This system is especially a boon in arid regions in view of limited water supply. The pitcher filled with water is buried in the periphery of the individual trees where feeding roots are confined. The water is released slowly with the micropores available in the wall of the pitcher and takes care of the irrigation requirement of the plant. The number of pitchers per plant depends upon the spread all around, 4 to 5 pitchers per plant would be sufficient.
Drip irrigation system
This is a system of irrigation that supplies water to the plant equivalent to its consumptive use. This is a high water use efficient system of irrigation having very little irrigation water requirement.
A drip irrigation system has four components: suction, regulation, control, and discharge which are accomplished by water lifting pump, hydro cyclone filter, sand filter, fertilizer mixing tank, screen filter, pressure regulator, water meter, mainline, laterals, and drippers. A water lifting pump is essential to supply water pressure. After lifting, the water passes through hydro cyclone filter, sand filter, fertilizer mixing tank, and screen filter and ultimately through dripper. Through hydrocyclone filter relatively coarser particles, through sand filters relatively finer particles, and through screen filter very fine particles are filtered. These filters are essential for the smooth running of water through laterals and drippers, otherwise choking of laterals may take place.