Production Technology of Mango

Horticulture Guruji


Fruit Science

King of fruits / Bathroom fruit / Nation fruit of India

  • Botanical Name – Mangifera india
  • Family – Anacardiaceae
  • No – 40=2n Allo-tetraploid/Amphidiploid
  • Origin – Indo-Burma
  • Edible part – Mesocarp
  • Fruit type – Drupe/stone
  • Mango is a climacteric fruit
  • Mango is an evergreen fruit plant
  • Mango bears fruit Terminally on old season growth
  • Mature and ripe fruit contains 6.6 to 19% starch
  • Mature fruit contain 0.7 to 0.05% acidity
  • Ripe fruit contains 22-28mg/100gm ascorbic acid
  • Viable pollen percentage in different varieties Chousa (94.3%) Krishnabhog (91.4%), Langra (90.8%), and Dashehari (93.2-94%)
  • Receptivity of stigma continued for about 72 hours after anthesis
  • Flower type – Penicle
  • Perfect flower in Alphonso is 6 to 11% (Langra have highest perfect flower 68.9% lowest Rumani – 0.74%).
  • Sex ratio (Hermaphrodite to male flower) 2.8 to 24.2%
  • Mango highly sensitive to salt.

Watch Lecture Video Part Ist

Watch Lecture Video Part IInd

  • Sporophytic self-incompatibility present in mango
  • The maximum area of mango in UP and production AP and productivity in AP
  • Harvesting time March to mid-August
  • Yield – 8.0t/ha
  • Mango should be store at 8-90C temperature
  • India is the largest producer of mango
  • In mango flower bud differentiation in oct-dec (but in Desheheri May-June and Sep-Oct)
  • Mango malformation was first observed in 1891 in Bihar
  • Mango variety Mulgoa is mono-embryonic in India and polyembryonic in Florida.
  • About 39% of world mango is produced in India.
  • Highest productivity in the world- Venezuela.
  • North Indian varieties– Alternate Bearer, Monoembryonic, Self-incompatible.
  • South Indian Varieties– Regular bearer, Polyembryonic.
  • Pollinator- Housefly.
  • Best pollinizing variety Bombay Green has the highest vitamin – C.
  • Maturity indices – Alphonso – Specific gravity -1.01 to 1.02

                                           Dashehari – Specific Gravity – 1.0

  • VHT- (Vapour Heat Treatment) for fruit flies and Stone Weevil.
  • Two crops or two times bearing in mango in Kanyakumari (TN).
  • Burns and Prayag in 1911 at Pune start hybridization work on mango.
  • Caging Technology of breeding was used in mango by Dr. R.N. Singh.
  • Spongy Tissue was first observed by Cheema and Dhani in 1934.
  • Black Tip was first observed in 1909 by Woodhouse.
  • The sweetest variety of mango is Chausa.
  • Rumani apple-shaped variety
  • Seedless variety – Sindhu = Ratna X Alphonso, Stone account 3% of total fruit weight, stone weight 6.75gm. pulp 83% pulp to stone ratio 26:1, result from stenospermocarpic parthenocarpy.
  • The longevity of mango seeds is 30 days (4 Weeks)
  • Good variety of mango have a TSS of 200 Brix (Xavier -highest TSS- 24.80
  • Rootstocks

Indian Polyembryonic rootstock – Bappakai, Chandrekaran, Goa, Olour, Kurukkan, Solan, Mulgoa, Bellary, Villiacolumban, Nileshawar Dwarf.

Introduced polyembryonic Rootstock – Apricot, Simmond, Hinggs, Pico, Sabre, Strawberry, Combodiana, Terpentine, Carabao, Saigon.

Salt resistant rootstock Kurukkan, Moovandan, Nekkare.

  • Rumani is used for dwarfing effect in Dashehari.
  • Olour for dwarfing effect in Langra & Himsagar.
  • Villicolumban for dwarfing effect in Alphonso.


  • Mango thrives well in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
  • It can be grown from sea level to an altitude of about 1400 meters.
  • The optimum temperature range is 240C to 270 However, it can tolerate up to 480C during fruit development with regular irrigations, which improve fruit size, quality, and maturity. Low temperatures (130C-190C) are good for flower bud differentiation.
  • It can be grown in areas with rainfall from 25 cm to 250 cm if no high humidity water stress or rest 2-3 months before flowering improves flower bud formation.


  • Mango grows in all soils with good depth (180cm) and drainage except black cotton soils.
  • The optimum pH is 5.5 to 7.0.
  • Alluvial and lateritic soil is good.
  • It cannot tolerate saline conditions.


Chausa, Dusehri, Gaddamar, Ottu Mangai, Mulgoba, Langra Benarsi, Badshahpasand, Surkha, Totapuri, Fajli, HusanNara, Alphonso, Amrapali, Badami, Bangalora, Banganapalli, Bombay, Bombay Green, Cheruku Rasalu, Chinna Rasalu, Pedda Rasalu, Roomani, Fajri Kalan, Fernandian, Gulabkhas, Himayath, Himsagar, Imam Pasand, Jehangir, Kalami, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Komanga, Lalbaug, Langra, Maldah, Malgis, Mallika, Mankur (GOA), Mankurad, Moovandan, Nattuma, Neelum, Pairi, Priyor, Rajapuri, Raspuri, Ratna, Safeda, Sammar Bahisht, Suvarnarekha, Totapuri, Vanraj, Zardalu, Alampur Baneshan, Puliyan, Kuttiyattor, Ela Manga, Nannari.

  • North Indian varieties – Dashehri, Lagra, Chausa, Bombay Green
  • South Indian Varieties- Banglora, Neelam, Swaranrekha, Pairi, Banganpali, Mulgoa, Badami.
  • East India- Himsagar, Fazli, Zardalu, Krishanbhog, Gulabkhas.
  • West India –Alphaso,Pairi, Kesar, Rajapuri, Mulkurad, Jamadar.

Popular Varieties-

  1. Alphonso: The most popular variety of India susceptible to spongy tissue. It has export quality.
  2. Banganpalli: The main commercial variety of A.P.
  3. Bombay Green: The earliest variety of North India. It is called Malda in UP and Sehroli in Delhi.
  4. Chausa: Sweetest variety of mango
  5. Dashehari: The most popular variety of North India.
  6. Fazli: Late maturing variety.
  7. Kesar: It has good processing quality.
  8. Langra: It has a characteristic turpentine flavour, most prone to fruit drop.
  9. Niranjan: off-season bearer.
  10. Neelum: Best combiner variety. Ideal for long transport, two crops in a year.
  11. Rosica: Mutant variety of mango.
  12. Madhulica: most precocious cultivar of mango.
  13. Lal Sindhuri: Powdery mildew resistant variety of mango
  14. Rumani- Apple-shaped variety.
  15. Akshay: Selection from Dashahari
  • Regular bearing varieties: Neelum, Gulabkas, Himsagar, Pairi, Totapuri.
  • Off-season bearer: Niranjan, Madhulica.
  • Exotic coloured cultivars: Tommy Atkins, Zilette, Haden, Sensation, Julie
  • Mulgoa is the mother of all coloured cultivars of mango and useful for making preserve.

Hybrid varieties

  1. Mallika: Neelum X Dashehari – Regular bearer, highest Vitamin A
  2. Amararpali: Dashehari X Neelam, Dwarf, suitable for HDP (2.5X2.5m2)
  3. Ratna: Neelam X Alphonso, Regular bearer, spongy tissue free, pulp -78.62%.
  4. Sindhu: Ratna X Alphonso
  5. Arka Puneet: Alphonso X Banganpalli, spongy tissue free
  6. Arka Aruna: Banganpalli X Alphonso, Dwarf, spongy tissue free
  7. Arka Anmol: Alphonso X Janardan Pasand, spongy tissue free
  8. Arka Neelkiran: Alphonso X Neelum, spongy tissue free
  9. Manjeera: Rumani X Neelum
  10. Prabha Sankar: Bombay Green X Kalapady
  11. Pusa Surya
  12. Pusa Arumina: Amrapalli X Sensation (USA)
  13. Saisugartha: Totapuri X Kesar, regular bearer, malformation free, suitable for pulping. 


Mango is commercially propagated by

  1. Veneer grafting
  2. Approach grafting
  3. Softwood grafting
  • June to Sept/Oct is best for grafting. Polyembryonic seedlings are best in providing uniform rootstocks.
  • Totapuri red small and Olour are dwarfing rootstocks. Mango does not show a significant variation on different rootstocks.

Land Preparation & Planting

  • Land should be ploughed to a proper tilth. Pits of 90 x 90 x 90 cm are dug at a spacing of 8-10 M. Pits may be filled with FYM.
  • Planting is done during the rainy season graft union should be kept at least 6 inches above the soil at planting. Staking should be done and watered soon after planting.
  • To accommodate other cultural activities and to ensure straight alignment of trees, layout the field using the desired planting system such as square, quincunx, or triangular system.

Manures and fertilizers

  • Fertilizers are applied twice in the year i.e beginning of monsoon (June – July) and during the period of post-monsoon (Sep.- Oct.).
  • 10 kg Fym, 2.5 kg Bone meal, 1.0 kg pot sulphate for 1-year-old plant and increased by 5 kg FYM, 0.5 kg bone meal, and 0.4 kg pot sulphate per year till 10th year.
  • Bearing trees may be given 750 gm N, 200gm P2O5 and 700 gm K2O/year/tree. It is better always to apply organic manures during October.
  • Manures should be applied in a small trench dug from about 1.5-2m from the trunk up to the drip line.
  • Watering should be done soon if no rain.


  • Irrigation should be according to the soil and weather conditions.
  • Bearing trees should be irrigated regularly at 10-15 days intervals from fruit set to maturity.
  • The plant should be given rest by stopping irrigations at least 2-3 months before flowering for maximum fruit bud development.
  • Under drip, plants may be applied with 40 liters/tree twice a week.

Intercultural operations

  • Intercropping can be done in pre bearing period to keep the weeds under control and to get some additional income.
  • Phalsa, Papaya, and Pineapple or Vegetables can be grown if irrigation facilities are available.
  • Cover crops like Sun hemp, Daincha, Cowpea, Cluster bean, etc. also can be grown during the rainy season and ploughed into the soil before the end of the rains.
  • Land should be ploughed twice a year during June and October.

Weed management

  • The root zone area of the trees must be kept weed-free all the time.
  • Manual cultivation is not recommended as it will disturb active roots.
  • Weed killers with heavy mulch may be quite effective in controlling weeds.
  • Weed control practices do not differ from what was explained for non-bearing trees.
  • Weeds can be controlled by the application of 4 kg/ha Atrazine/oxyflurofen (Goal) @ 800ml/ha as pre-emergence and application of 2 liters/ha Gramaxone (Paraquat)/as post-emergence.

Pruning and Training

  • Mango needs no regular pruning except removing dead and diseased branches.
  • Young plants (2-3 years age) should be trained properly to have a good framework.

Flowering and fruitset

  • Flower bud formation takes place 2-3 months prior to flowering.
  • Flowering occurs from Nov-Dec to Feb-Mar depending upon locality and variety and continues for about 2-3 weeks.
  • Flowers are polygamous-sex ratio can be improved by the application of NAA 200ppm at flower bud initiation stage.

Harvesting and yield in mango

The stage of harvesting is very important, which will be indicated by

(1) Starting of Colour development

(2) Falling off one or two fruits from the plant

(3) Specific gravity of 1.0 to 1.02(more reliable)

  • Mango normally takes 90-120 days from fruit set to maturity. Harvesting is done using pole harvesters without causing any damage to the fruit.
  • Mango grafts come to bearing in about 2-3 years but commercial yields can be had from 8-10 years and may continue up to 40-60 years.
  • The average yield is 8-10 tonnes/ha and may vary according to variety and locality.

Packing and transport

  • Mangoes are normally packed in bamboo baskets using straw as the padding material.
  • Wooden and cardboard boxes are also used. Wrapping fruits individually maintain the quality of the fruit.
  • Waxing 3% with hot water treatment improves storage life mangoes can be stored at 5-140c and 90% RH for about 2-7 weeks depending upon the variety.

Physiological Disorders

  1. Mango malformation

  • Maris was the first scientist to observe the mango malformation disease in India at Darbhanga (Bihar) in 1891.
  • Affected cultivars – Bomby Green, Chousa, and Dashehri, Langra.
  • The malformation is serious in the North than in the South. It may result in the loss of about 50-60% of the total crop. Krishnabhog, Collecter, Langra, Neelum are tolerant (seedling trees are found to be tolerant)

Two types of malformation

Vegetative malformation

  • The vegetative malformation is generally affecting seedlings of young plants in which there is a swelling of bud and formation of small shoots with short internodes at the apical end and gives an appearance of ‘witches broom’ like structure.

Floral Malformation

  • In floral malformation, panicles become deformed, axes become deformed, axes become short and rachis thick due to this inflorescence look like a cluster.
  • Malformed panicles have bigger flowers than normal flowers and are mostly male.

Causes of malformation

  • Fungal (Fusarium maniliformae)
  • The vector is reported to a mango hopper.
  • Acrological (many species of mites (Aceria mangifera, Cheletogenas ornatus, Typhaloduomus rdenanus)
  • Physiological and biochemical causes (Nutritional, soil moisture, hormonal balance, inhibitors, etc.)

Control measures

  1. Application of plant growth regulators (first week of October)and phenolic compounds (NAA @ 200ppm, Ethrel, GA, Paclobutrozol, etc.)
  2. Use of antagonists and antimalformins: Glutahione, Ascorbic acid, Silver nitrate
  3. Application of nutrients: High NPK added with FeSO4, Cobalt sulphate
  4. Pruning of malformed parts 15-20cm below the point of attachment and then spray the plants with a mixture of captan 0.2% + Akar 0.1% or Malathion 0.1%.
  5. Application of pesticides: Parathion, Kelthane, Kerathane.
  6. Covering panicles with polythene film to raise the temperature around the panicle.

2. Fruit drop

Fruit drop is natural and is very high in mango especially during the mustard and pea stage (first four weeks).

Causes of Fruit drops

  • Lack of pollination
  • Low stigmatic receptivity
  • Defective perfect flowers
  • Poor pollen transfers due to insufficient pollinators, rain or high humidity, and cloudy weather.
  • Lack of soil moisture
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions like high temperature, wind, hail storm, etc.
  • High incidence of disease like powdery mildew, anthracnose.
  • Deficiency of auxin, GA3, and Cytokinins.

Control measures

  • Regular irrigation during the fruit setting to the development stage.
  • Application of PGR like NAA at 25ppm or 2,4-D at 10-15ppm, 2,4,5-T at 20 ppm during pea stage.
  • Spraying of urea (2%) also beneficial.


3. Alternate Bearing / Biennial bearing

Biennial bearing is also known as an alternate bearing. It indicates yield variation in alternate years i.e., a year of optimum or heavy fruiting is followed by a year of little or no fruiting.

The phrases ‘on’ year and ‘off-year is used to refer to the years of ‘normal’ and ‘sub-normal or ‘no crop’ respectively.

Though planting of regular bearing varieties like Amrapali is suggested for getting regular fruits, most of the commercially grown varieties in North India, like Dussheri, Safedas, chousa, and Langra are alternate bearers.

Causes: –

1) Climatic conditions: – Adverse climatic condition convers an ‘ON’ year to ‘OFF’ years. Adverse climatic conditions are high temperature, too low temperature, frost, high wind, hail storm.

2) Age and size of shoots: – In an ‘ON’ year shoot of any size or maturity differentiates flower buds whereas in maturity are available, they fail to flower.

3) C/N ratio: – The C/N ratio play important role in increasing favourable conditions for the synthesis and action of the substances responsible for flowering.

4) Hormonal balance: – Higher levels of auxin and inhibitor substance and lower levels of gibberellins-like substances were found to be vital for a flowering shoot.

Control Measures:

  1. Proper upkeep and scientific maintenance of orchards
  2. Deblossoming in one year (NAA)
  3. Smudging and chemical regulation like application of Ethrel (2-Chloroethane phosphonic acid) paclobutrazol (10gm/tree), spraying 1-2% KNO3, 6-8% calcium nitrate, etc.
  4. Pruning: Pruning the fruited shoots and opening the treetop properly
  5. Growing regular bearing cultivars: Bangalore, Rumani, Neelum, and almost all hybrids.

 4. Black tip

  • Common in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, and WB.
  • A physiological disorder causing the distal end of the fruit to become black hard.
  • Fruit ripe prematurely.


  • Where brick kilns are located near the mango orchard.
  • The polluted atmosphere with the smoke of a brick kiln, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, acetylene causes this disorder.

Control Measures

  • Allow bricks kiln at a distance of at least 1.6 km in the east and west and 0.8 km in the north and south of the mango orchard.
  • Increase the chimney height 15 to 18 meters.
  • Spraying Borax 0.6 percent from fruit set at 10-15 days intervals controls this (Punjab, UP, Bihar, WB). 

5. Leaf Scorch

  • Particular old mango leaves show scorching at the tips and margins.
  • Affected leaves fall down and the tree vigour and yield are reduced.


  • Excess chloride ions render potash unavailable.
  • Leaf scorch common in saline soils
  • Where brackish water is used for irrigation.
  • Or where MOP (Potassium chloride) is used for potassium.


  • Apply potassium sulphate.
  • Avoid planting on saline soil.
  • Avoid brackish water for irrigation.

6. Spongy tissue

  • More serious in MH, Karnataka, Gujarat, and AP.
  • Modified as a non-edible sour yellowish and sponge-like patch with or without air pockets developing in the fruit during ripening and remaining small or involving the whole fruit pulp.
  • Affected fruits have a bad odour and become inferior quality.
  • Alphonso variety is more prone to this malady.


  • High temperature,
  • Solar radiation keeps soil much heated and that heat emitted by soil as convective flux.
  • Exposure to sunlight after harvest is supposed to be the cause.

Remedial measures

  • Protect the mango orchard with tall-growing shady plants on the border.
  • Follow sod culture
  • Mulching with paddy straw.
  • Pre-harvest dipping of fruits in Calcium chloride at 2% solution.
  • Harvest fruit at ¾ maturity stage as fully mature fruit.
  • Post-harvest dipping of fruit in 500ppm ethephon.

 7. Soft Nose

  • The physiological disorder caused by Ca deficiency causing the breakdown of flesh towards the apex of the fruit before ripening.

 8. Clustering (Jhumka)

  • Clustering of fruits without growth at the tip of the panicles caused by adverse weather (low temperature) during Feb-March.
  • Most of the fruits drop + shriveled and aborted embryos.

Insect Pests

  1. Mango hoppers or Jassids (Amritodus spp.)

  • Both adult and nymphs suck the sap from tender shoots leaves and inflorescence or panicles.
  • Panicle dry.
  • Hoppers secrete honeydew on which sooty mould grows on the leaves and panicles.


  • Spray Carbaryl (Sevin) 0.05% (2gm/liter) or Monocrotophos 0.04% or phosphamidon (Dimecron) 0.05% at the time to panicle emergence and again at the pea stage of the fruit.
  1. Mealy Bug (Drosicha mangiferea): –

(Major pest of mango) they suck sap and affected plant parts dry up, and also cause immature fruit drops.


  • Dig the soil around the mango trunk during hot summer and clean the weeds and other grass after the monsoon.
  • Do banding of the trunk in the month of Nov.-Dec. with slippery bands of alkathane sheet (400 gauge) or sticky band of grease and coaltar in the ratio of 1:2. The band is made 30-45cm wide30-40cm above the ground level.
  • Spray carbaryl (Sevin) 0.2%, Monocrotophos 0.4%.
  1. Fruit flies (Dacus dorsalis): –

The maggot feeds on pulp and converts it into an off-smelling rotten semiliquid. Flies after mating the lay eggs in clusters 150-200 under the skin in the fruit just before the ripening. After 2-3 days the maggots hatch out and start feeding on the pulp.


  • Collect and destroy fallen fruits.
  • Spray Carbaryl 0.2% + 0.1% molasses beginning pre oviposition stage.
  • Hang traps containing 100ml emulsion of methyl eugenol 10.1% malathion 0.1% from April-June in the mango orchard.
  1. Stone or Nut weevil: – (Crypotorrynchus mangiferae & C. gravis) :-

  • More common in south India.
  • The grub and adult feed on both the pulp and cotyledons of the fruit.
  • The eggs are laid in partially developed fruits.


  • Adopt phytosanitary measures in the mango orchard.
  • Wash the infected bark with kerosene emulsion.
  • Apply Diazinon (0.05%) to a trunk spray.
  • Spray malathion 0.1% + Eldrin 0.0% 45 days after flowering and repeat the spray thrice at 30 days interval.


  1. Powdery mildew (Odium mangiferae)

  • Incidence of powdery mildew during Feb-March o even early due to favourable temperature and humidity. The flowers, newly set fruits may be entirely covered by a white powdery mass.


  • Spray the plant with wettable sulphur 0.2% or Karathane 0.1% or Bavistin 0.1% at an interval of 10 days.
  1. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporoides)
  • Serious in humid and high rainfall area having a temperature 24 to 320
  • The causal fungus produces leaf spot, blossom, blight, wither tip, twig blight, and fruit rot symptoms.
  • Young fruit develops black spots, shrivel, and drops off.


  • Prune dead and dried twigs and destroy them by burning.
  • Spray Bordeaux mixture (3:3:50) or Blitox 0.3% or Bavistin 0.1% in the month of February, April & Sept.
  • Affected fruits should be dipped in hot water at 510C for 15 minutes before storage.

References cited

  1. Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
  2. A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
  3. Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu

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