Production Technology of Orange/ Mandarin

Horticulture Guruji

Orange / Mandarin

Fruit Science

Botanical Name – Citrus reticulata

Family – Rutaceae

Origin – China

Ch No – 2n=18

Fruit type- Hesperidium

Inflorescence type – Cymose (Solitary)

Edible part – Juicy Placental Hairs.

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  • Mandarin is grown in 50% area under citrus species
  • Citrus seeds do not have dormancy, so they should be sown immediately after extraction.
  • Flowering three times a year
    1. February flower —— Ambe Bahar
    2. June Fool —————Mrig Bahar
    3. October flower ——Hasth Bahar
  • Mandarin/Orange are susceptible to waterlogging.
  • Rootstock for HDP – Troyer citrange (1.8×1.8m2)
  • Best time to prune – late winter or early spring
  • Highly polyembryonic – Mandarin, Sweet orange, Lemon, Grapefruit.
  • Monoembryonic – Pummelo, Tahiti lime, Citron.
  • Rangpur lime is the best rootstock for mandarin and sweet orange.
  • Rootstock – Adajamir ( C. assamensis) is resistant to greening.
  • Citrus fruits have a special type of peel called leathery rind.
  • Citrus is a plant that loves micronutrients.
  • Trifoliate orange is resistant to phytophthora and nematode.
  • Alemow (Citrus macrophylla) is the dwarf rootstock for old-line Temple mandarin (Citrus temple).
  • Limolin – The glycoside responsible for the bitter taste in citrus juices.
  • In orange aroma is due to Valencene.
  • In the United States in 1935 H.B. Frost developed the mandarin variety Kinnow.
  • Kinnow was introduced in India in 1959.
  • Nagpur Mandarin was introduced in India in 1894 by Shuji Raja Bhonsle.
  • The irrigation requirement of mandarin is higher than other citrus species
  • Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of citrus fruits in India followed by Maharashtra.
  • Sikkim is the only place where Mandarin is packed in wooden boxes.

Varieties: –

  • Coorg- the most important commercial variety of South India
  • Khasi – Locally know as Sikkim or kamla mandarin
  • Nagpur (Ponkan) – Finest mandarin in the world. Grown in Satpuda hills of MH.
  • Satsuma (seedless) – Commercial Mandarin of Japan
  • Emperor and Fuetrelles – Introduced from Australia.
  • Sutwal – Introduced from Nepal
  • Laddu

Hybrid: –

Kinow- King (Citrus nobilis) x willow leaf (Citrus diliciosa)

First time raised on Jatti Khatti (Citrus jambhiri) rootstock in 1959 at the PAU regional Research Station Abohar

Climate –

  • Mandarins require subtropical and tropical climates
  • It is grown at an altitude of 600 to 1100 meters above sea level.
  • Annual rainfall 75 – 250 cm


  • Should be medium to light loam, deep, well-drained, and free from excess salt rich in organic matter.
  • Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0


  • Mandarin is largely propagated by seeds. However, propagation of Nagpur orange and Kinnow is mainly done by budding.


  • Jambhiri is widely used for Nagpur oranges in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
  • Karna Khatta rootstock is used in Punjab and U.P.

Manure and fertilizers

  • N:P:K – 290 : 200 : 240 gm/tree
  • FYM – 100 kg/tree
  • The total quantity of P2O5 and K2O and half quantity of N is applied during February -March and the remaining quantity of N during September-October.


  • At an interval of 8-10 days in summer and at an interval of 20-25 days in winter

Interculture and Intercropping

  • Weeding is done twice or thrice a year.
  • Moong, Urad, Pea, Cabbage, Potato, etc. are suitable intercrops.

Flowering and fruiting

  • Plants start flowering and fruiting after 4-5 years of planting.
  • Kinnow trees show an irregular fruiting tendency. That is, a year of heavy fruiting is followed by a year of poor fruiting, smaller fruits of poor quality.
  • Application of NAA 350 ppm at 30 days after full bloom induces a fair amount of fruit thinning.


  • Being non-climacteric, mandarin fruits fail to ripen after harvest and are harvested only when they are fully ripe, have an attractive orange colour, and have an acceptable sugar-acid ratio
  • Kinnow is harvested from late January to mid-February.


  • Mandarin gives 500-800 fruits after about 9-10 years.
  • Kinnow trees start bearing fruit after the fourth year of planting and the average yield is 70.3 kg/tree (28.12 t/ha). Commercial yield starts from the 7th year and yields up to 85 kg/tree is obtained.

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