Orange / Mandarin
Botanical Name – Citrus reticulata
Family – Rutaceae
Origin – China
Ch No – 2n=18
Fruit type- Hesperidium
Inflorescence type – Cymose (Solitary)
Edible part – Juicy Placental Hairs.
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- Mandarin occupies 50% area under citrus spp.
- Seed of citrus doesn’t have dormancy so they should be sown immediately after extraction.
- Blooming three times a year.
- February flowering Ambe Bahar
- June flowering Mrig Bahar
- October Flowering Hasth Bahar
- Mandarins are highly susceptible to waterlogging.
- Rootstock for HDP – Troyer citrange (1.8×1.8m2).
- Best time of pruning – Late winter or early spring.
- Highly polyembryonic – Mandarin, Sweet orange, Acid lime Gape fruit.
- Monoembryonic – Pummelo Tahiti lime, Citron.
- Rangpur lime is the most Promising rootstock for mandarin & Sweet orange.
- Rootstock – Adajamir ( C. assamensis) is resistant to greening.
- Citrus fruits have a special kind of fruit skim referred to as the leathery rind
- Citrus is a micronutrient loving plant
- Trifoliate orange resistant to phytophthora and nematodes.
- Alemow (Citrus macrophylla) is a dwarfing rootstock for old-line Temple mandarin (Citrus temple).
- Limolin – glycoside is responsible for bitter tests in citrus juice.
The aroma of Orange – Valencene
- The Kinow variety of mandarin developed by H B frost in the USA in 1935
- The Kinow was introduced to India in 1959
- Nagpur mandarin was introduced to India in 1894 by Shuji Raja Bhonsle
- The irrigation requirement of mandarin is higher than other citrus species
- The state with the highest production of citrus in India in Andhra Pradesh followed by Maharashtra.
- Sikkim is the only place where mandarin is packed in wooden boxes.
- Coorg- Most important commercial variety of South India
- Khasi – Locally known as Sikkim or Kamla mandarin
- Nagpur (Ponkan) – Finest mandarin in the world. Grown in Satpura hills of MH.
- Satsuma (seedless) – Commercial mandarin of Japan
- Emperor and Fuetrelles – Introduced from Australia.
- Sutwal – Introduced from Nepal
Kinow- King x willow leaf
Citrus nobilis x Citrus diliciosa
First time raised on Jatti Khatti (Citrus jambhiri rootstock in 1959 at the PAU regional Research Station Abohar)
- Mandarin requires subtropical & tropical climate
- Grow in elevation from 600 – 1100m.
- Annual rainfall 75 – 250 cm
- Medium to light loan, deep, well-drained, free from excess salts rich in organic matter
- Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0
Mandarins are largely propagated by seeds. However, the Nagpur Santra and kinnow is mainly propagated by budding
- Jambheri is universally used for Nagpur Santra in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
- Karna khatta rootstock used in Punjab and UP
Manures and Fertilizers
- N:P:K – 290 : 200 : 240 gm / tree
- FYM – 100 kg / tree
- The total amount of P2O5 and K2O and half dose of N. are applied during Feb. March and remaining dose of N during Sept-Oct.
- During summer 8-10 days interval and in winter 20-25 days interval
Interculture and intercropping
- Hoeing is done twice and thrice a year
- Suitable intercrops are Moong, Urd, Pea, Cabbage, Potato, etc.
Flowering and fruiting
- Plants start bearing flowering and fruits 4-5 years after planting
- Kinnow trees show the tendency of irregular bearing. That is heavy crop year is followed by poor crop year with small fruits of poor quality
- Application of NAA 350 ppm 30 days after full bloom induces a reasonable amount of fruit thinning.
- Being non – climacteric, mandarin fruits fail to ripen after harvesting
- Harvested only when they are fully ripe, attractive orange coloured, and acceptable sugar-acid ratio
- Picking of Kinnow – from the end of January to half February
- Kinnow – 2000 – 5000 fruits/tree
- Mandarin – 1000 – 1500 fruit / tree 100 – 150 q. / ha.
- Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
- A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
- Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu