Production Technology of Orange/ Mandarin

Horticulture Guruji

Orange / Mandarin

Fruit Science

Botanical Name – Citrus reticulata

Family – Rutaceae

Origin – China

Ch No – 2n=18

Fruit type- Hesperidium

Inflorescence type – Cymose (Solitary)

Edible part – Juicy Placental Hairs.

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  • Mandarin occupies 50% area under citrus spp.
  • Seed of citrus doesn’t have dormancy so they should be sown immediately after extraction.
    Orange and Kinnow
    Orange and Kinnow
  • Blooming three times a year.
      1. February flowering Ambe Bahar
      2. June flowering        Mrig Bahar
      3. October Flowering Hasth Bahar
  • Mandarins are highly susceptible to waterlogging.
  • Rootstock for HDP – Troyer citrange (1.8×1.8m2).
  • Best time of pruning – Late winter or early spring.
  • Highly polyembryonic – Mandarin, Sweet orange, Acid lime Gape fruit.
  • Monoembryonic – Pummelo Tahiti lime, Citron.
  • Rangpur lime is the most Promising rootstock for mandarin & Sweet orange.
  • Rootstock – Adajamir ( C. assamensis) is resistant to greening.
  • Citrus fruits have a special kind of fruit skim referred to as the leathery rind
  • Citrus is a micronutrient loving plant
  • Trifoliate orange resistant to phytophthora and nematodes.
  • Alemow (Citrus macrophylla) is a dwarfing rootstock for old-line Temple mandarin (Citrus temple).
  • Limolin – glycoside is responsible for bitter tests in citrus juice.
  • The aroma of Orange – Valencene

  • The Kinow variety of mandarin developed by H B frost in the USA in 1935
  • The Kinow was introduced to India in 1959
  • Nagpur mandarin was introduced to India in 1894 by Shuji Raja Bhonsle
  • The irrigation requirement of mandarin is higher than other citrus species
  • The state with the highest production of citrus in India in Andhra Pradesh followed by Maharashtra.
  • Sikkim is the only place where mandarin is packed in wooden boxes.

Varieties: –

  • Coorg- Most important commercial variety of South India
  • Khasi – Locally known as Sikkim or Kamla mandarin
  • Nagpur (Ponkan) – Finest mandarin in the world. Grown in Satpura hills of MH.
  • Satsuma (seedless) – Commercial mandarin of Japan
  • Emperor and Fuetrelles – Introduced from Australia.
  • Sutwal – Introduced from Nepal
  • Laddu

Hybrid: –

Kinow- King x willow leaf

     Citrus nobilis x Citrus diliciosa

First time raised on Jatti Khatti (Citrus jambhiri rootstock in 1959 at the PAU regional Research Station Abohar)

Climate –

  • Mandarin requires subtropical & tropical climate
  • Grow in elevation from 600 – 1100m.
  • Annual rainfall 75 – 250 cm


  • Medium to light loan, deep, well-drained, free from excess salts rich in organic matter
  • Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0


Mandarins are largely propagated by seeds. However, the Nagpur Santra and kinnow is mainly propagated by budding


  • Jambheri is universally used for Nagpur Santra in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
  • Karna khatta rootstock used in Punjab and UP

Manures and Fertilizers

  • N:P:K – 290 : 200 : 240 gm / tree
  • FYM – 100 kg / tree
  • The total amount of P2O5 and K2O and half dose of N. are applied during Feb. March and remaining dose of N during Sept-Oct.


  • During summer 8-10 days interval and in winter 20-25 days interval

Interculture and intercropping

  • Hoeing is done twice and thrice a year
  • Suitable intercrops are Moong, Urd, Pea, Cabbage, Potato, etc.

Flowering and fruiting

  • Plants start bearing flowering and fruits 4-5 years after planting
  • Kinnow trees show the tendency of irregular bearing. That is heavy crop year is followed by poor crop year with small fruits of poor quality
  • Application of NAA 350 ppm 30 days after full bloom induces a reasonable amount of fruit thinning.


  • Being non – climacteric, mandarin fruits fail to ripen after harvesting
  • Harvested only when they are fully ripe, attractive orange coloured, and acceptable sugar-acid ratio
  • Picking of Kinnow – from the end of January to half February


  • Kinnow – 2000 – 5000 fruits/tree
  • Mandarin – 1000 – 1500 fruit / tree 100 – 150 q. / ha.


References cited

  1. Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
  2. A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
  3. Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu

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