Horticulture Guruji

Radish Cultivation

Vegetable Science

Mooli, Muli

Botanical name: Raphanus sativus

Family: Cruciferae

Origin: Europe

Chromosome number: 2n = 18

Inflorescence type: Racemose

Fruit Type Siliqua

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  • Sporophytic self-incompatibility is present in radish.
  • Radish is rich in Vitamin C (15-40mg/100gm)
  • The Pusa Chetki variety is suitable for growing in hot months.
  • Pusa Himani variety can be grown throughout the year
  • Tropical varieties can produce seeds in both tropical and temperate regions.
  • The temperate varieties are biennial in nature.
  • The pungency in radish is due to isothiocyanates.
  • The red colour of the radish is due to anthocyanin pigment.

Nutritive value (per 100 g of edible portion) and use

It has a cooling effect, prevents constipation and increases appetite, and is more nutritious when cooked with the leaves. It is recommended for patients suffering from gallbladder problems, piles, liver troubles, jaundice, etc. The juice of fresh leaves is used as a diuretic and laxative.


  1. European or temperate type
  2. Asian and Tropical

The temperate type varieties are smaller in size, less pungent in taste, and are mostly grown as salad crops.

                                  Asiatic Varieties





Radish is heat tolerant. The ideal temperature for the growth and development of quality roots in radish is 10-15.5°C. The crop is grown in warm climates, with short root varieties producing tough and extremely pungent roots. Bolting intensifies when the day length increases. Long days as well as high temperatures cause the plant to mature prematurely without sufficient roots to form a stalk.


It can be grown in all types of soil but light sandy or loamy soil is best for radish cultivation. The optimum soil pH range is 5.5-7.0. Heavy soils tend to produce rough, ill-shaped roots with smaller lateral fibers, which reduce market value.

Time of sowing

September-January in the plains of North India

European Varieties: September-March

In the hills: March-October

Seed rate

Asian varieties: 10 kg/ha

European varieties: 12-14 kg/ha

Sowing Method:

Radish is sown on ridges. The distance varies with the varieties. The temperate variety gets ready in 25 to 50 days. So they are sown very closely while tropical varieties take longer and are spaced more because of their larger size. Radish is sown on furrows at a distance of 45 cm and at a height of 22 cm. About 1.25 cm from the pointed end of the stick at the top of the ridge. A small furrow is made deep and the seeds are sown by hand in furrows mixed with fine sand or coarse soil. After this, the seeds are covered.

Manure and fertilizers

A fertilizer dose of 25-30 tonnes of well-decomposed cow dung manure and 50 kg Nitrogen, 100 kg P2O5, and 50 kg K2O is recommended for the crop. The full dose of FYM, P2O5, K2O, and half dose of N should be given as the base dose at the time of land preparation. The remaining dose of N is applied at the time of first hoeing.


Give light irrigation immediately after sowing. Irrigate the crop once in 6-7 days depending upon the weather condition.

Interculture operations

Weeding, hoeing, and earthing up the field should be done at the right time. Pre-emergence application of Fluchloralin 0.5 kg/ha or Oxadiazon 1.0 kg/ha can effectively control weeds in radish field.


Radish should be dug when the roots are tender. A delay of a few days in harvesting, especially of temperate-type roots, may render the pithy and the root quite unfit for the market. European species must be uprooted 20 days after planting before they become spongy and hollow; other varieties are harvested when their roots are still tender and full-sized. To give them a good appearance by pulling them from above by hand, washing them, and removing the soil, they are sent to the market by tying them open in baskets or in bunches of 3-6 according to the variety.


  • The European variety gives a yield of 8000 to 12000 kg per hectare or 5-10 t/ha.
  • Asian varieties yield 20,000 to 33,000 kg per hectare or 20–30 t/ha.

Physiological disorders

1. Brown Heart: This disorder is caused by the deficiency of Boron. The first to appear are black spots that usually appear on the thickest part of the root. Plant growth stops. Leaves are smaller than normal and less in number, which later appears variegated with yellow and purple-red spots. Leaf petioles show longitudinal division. Roots appear small, deformed, and grey.

Management: Add borax 15-20 kg/ha in soil. Can be managed by a foliar application of 1% borax.

2. Wart: In this disorder, a protrusion of white inner root tissue through splits in the skin. It is mainly caused due to soil moisture deficiency.

Management: Keep proper moisture conditions in the field.

3. Akashin: It is caused due to boron deficiency and also due to high day and night temperatures (30/20°C) as well as by low soil moisture.

Management: Spray 1-2 ppm of boron on the crop.

4. Pithyness: It is more in summer as compared to spring or autumn crops. Root yellowing occurs due to excessive application of fertilizers, soil moisture stress, and high-temperature conditions 3 weeks before harvest.


  • Maintaining proper moisture conditions in the field,
  • Avoiding growing susceptible varieties during summer, and
  • Two sprays of 0.3% Borax at 25 and 40 days after sowing.

5. Forking: It is a common disorder in carrots and radishes. Secondary elongated growth gives the root a forked structure. This disorder is caused by excess moisture during root development. It also occurs in heavy soils due to soil compaction and can also be caused by non-decomposed organic manure.

Management: Avoid excessive moisture and heavy soil for root production.


1. Aphid (Lipaphis erysimi, Myzus persicae): Serious pest of radish, attacks at seedling as well as maturity stage. They suck the sap from the soft parts of the plants.


Malathion 50 EC 1ml per liter of water or spray Phosphamidon, Dimethoate (0.05%) two three times at an interval of 10 days.

2. Mustard sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima): Black larvae feed on leaves.


Spray with Malathion 50EC @ 1 ml/Lit of water. Or spray Phosphomidone or Oxymethyl demeton (0.05%).

3. Flea Beetle (Phyllotreta striolata): Adult feeding on seedling stage and casing small holes.


Spray with Quinalphos (0.05%).


1. Mosaic 1: It is spread by aphids. Young leaves develop moulting and interveinal chlorotic areas which gradually increase in size and eventually coalesce to form irregular chlorotic patches.


  • Apply Carbofuran @ 1.5 kg/ha to the soil at the time of sowing.
  • 2-3 spraying of Phosphomidone 0.05%.

2. White rust (Albugo candida)

Symptoms may first appear as small, pale green spots, which later turn white and eventually develop into raised white pustules like blisters, usually on the lower leaf surface. Systemic infection can occur, causing the tops of young shoots to become distorted and appear abnormally shaped.


  • Avoid sprinkler irrigation.
  • Follow a 3-year rotation between susceptible crops.
  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Spray Mancozeb 2 g/l or Copper oxychloride 2 g/l.

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