Botanical Name : Solanum melongena
Chromosome Number.: 2n = 24
Other Names: Eggplant, Aubergine
- Male sterility is found in brinjal.
- Anthocynin pigment is present in brinjal.
- Eggplant is a day neutral plant.
- A toxic substance called Solasodine is present in brinjal.
- After China, India is second in brinjal production.
- West Bengal is the first in brinjal production in India followed by Odisha and then Bihar.
- White varieties of brinjal is beneficial for diabetic patients.
- Hybrid varieties of brinjal are grown in 14% area.
- Heterostyly flowers commonly found in brinjal.
- Most fruit setting on long styled flowers.
- Pseudo–short and short styled flowers do not seem to bear fruit.
- Purple varieties have more vitamin C than white varieties.
Area and Production
In India it is well distributed in Orissa, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Maharashtra and UP. Brinjal covers 8.14% of total vegetable area and produces 9 per cent of the total production.
Table: Area, production and productivity of brinjal in India
|Year||Area (000’ha)||Production (000’MT)||Productivity (MT/ha)|
Source: NHB Data base 2018
Economic importance and use
- Brinjal is available in the market throughout the year, rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B, the fruit contains 91.5g of water, 6.4g carbohydrates 1.3g protein, 0.3g fat, and 0.5g of other minerals per 100g. Vitamin C (38-104.7mg/100g) is found in the green leaf of brinjal.
- Dark purple brinjal has more vitamin C than those with white skin . Bitterness in brinjal is caused by glycoalkaloids. The high dose of glycoalkaloid (20mg/100g) usually makes the taste of brinjal bitter.
- Brinjal is also used to reduce cholesterol.
- Brinjal has got much potential as raw material in pickle making and dehydration industries. It is supposed to contain certain medicinal properties and white brinjal is said to be good for diabetic patients. The fruits are employed as a cure for toothache. It is also an excellent remedy for those who suffering from liver complaints.
The varieties of brinjal can be divided into many types according to colour and size, while the following are the two main types of brinjal varieties:
I. Long Varieties
Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster, Pusa Kranti, Krishnanagar Green long, Arka Sheel, Arka Kusumakar, Arka Anand, Arka Keshav (BWR-21), Arka Navneeth, Arka Neelkanth (BWR-54) Arka Nidhi (BWR-12), Arka Shirish (IIHR 194-1), H -4, Punjab Barsati, Pant Smart, Azad Kranti
II. Round Varieties
Pant Rituraj, Pusa Purple Round, Manjri, Krishnanagar Purple Round, Punjab Bahar
|Pusa Purple Long||Pusa Purple Cluster||Pant Samrat|
|Pusa Purple Round||Arka Shirish (green)||Arka Kusumkar|
|Arka Sheel||Punajb Chamkila||Punjab Neelum|
|Punjab Bahar||Azad Kranti||Arka Nidhi|
Pusa Anmol: Pusa Purple Long X Hyderpur at IARI
Azad hybrid: Azad B1 X Kalyanpur-3,
Pusa Kranti: (Pusa Purple Long X Hyderpur) X WG (Wynad Gaint).
Pant Rituraj: T-3 X PPC,
Pusa Anupam: Pusa Kranti X PPC,
Punajb Barsati: PPC X H-4,
Pusa Uttam: GR X Rituraj
Pusa Bindu: GR X Rituraj
Arka Navneet: IIHR221XSupreme
Pusa Bhairav: PPL X 11a-12-2-1 Phomopsis blight resistant.
Pusa upkar, Pusa Hybrid-5, Pusa Hybrid-6, Vijay hybrid, Hisar Shyamal (H-8), Pusa Jamuni, Hissar Shyamal, Vardan, Nisha, Shiva, Suphal, Vaishali
Pant Samrat: Phomopsis blight and resistant variety from Bacterial Wilt.
Florida Market: Phomopsis blight resistant
Annamalai: Aphids Resistant Variety
Pusa Ankur: New Variety
Brinjal is susceptible to severe frost. A long and warm growing season with temperature range of 21-280C is most favourable for its successful production. Climatic conditions especially low temperature during the cool season cause abnormal development of the ovary (Splitting) in flower buds which then differentiate and develop into deformed fruits during that season. Late cultivars, however, withstand mild frost and continue to bear some fruits. The brinjal grown in warm season shows luxurious growth and starts bearing from the initial flowers, while in cool season its growth is poor and slow and fruit size, quality and production are adversely affected.
Brinjal can be grown in all types of soils but for good production silt loam and clay loam soils are preferred for brinjal cultivation. Soil should be good drainage, deep and fertile. The pH of the soil should be 5.5 to 6.0.
Brinjal is grown in northern India in two seasons:
- June-July for autumn-winter crop
- For Spring summer crop sown in November
In other parts of the country, it is sown in June to September and then in December-January.
Seeds in hilly areas are sown in March-April.
Seed Rate and Seed Treatment:
About 250-375g seeds remain sufficient for a hector to prepare about 40,000-45,000 plants. To prevent diseases seeds should be treated with thiaram or captan at the rate of 2g/kg before sowing.
The raised beds for brinjal seedlings are made of 7.5m x 1.2m x 10-15cm, in which the seeds are sown in lines at a distance of 7.5 to 10 cm, Upper surface of the bed cover with 1 cm thick layer of compost or FYM and is thoroughly mixed into the upper soil. After sowing the seeds, the bed is covered with dried grass or leaves. Then the water is sprayed from the Hazara, the plant is ready for transplanting to the main field in 4 to 5 weeks.
Preparation of Field
By ploughing 4-5 times the soil is made brittle and add FYM 25 tonnes per hector at the time of last ploughing of the field.
The spacing of plants depends on the type, weather, and variety of soils, generally, for brinjal, a distance of 60 X 45, 75 X 60 or 75 X 75 cm is recommended.
Manures and Fertilizers
Good yield and growth of brinjal requires more fertilizers. At the time of field preparation 25 tons/hac. dung manure should be applied. Out of the quantity of fertilizers given below, 25% of nitrogen and the entire amount of phosphorus and potash is put at the time of final tillage of the field. And the remaining nitrogen is divided into two parts and top dressed with irrigation after the first 35-40 days and the second 60-70 days later.
Table 1. Recommendations of NPK levels in some states of India
Zn can be used to take more production and get large fruit, Cu increases the number of flowers.
It requires more irrigation and it is very necessary at the time of fruiting and fruit development stage, the plains should irrigate every 3 to 4 days in the summer and 10 to 14 days in winter. Drip irrigation method is more profitable this does not keep the weed problem and also gives more production.
Weeds should be removed from time to time. Light weeding in the field does not grow weeds and the soil remains brittle. Orabanche is the major weed of brinjal and solanaceous crops. It is a root parasite weed. A pre-planting treatment of 1.0 kg/ha of fluchloralin followed by one hand weeding at 30 days after transplanting is effective.
Mulching controls weeds and also protects soil moisture, currently mulching of black polythene, which is very beneficial, which controls weeds and also increases plant growth and production.
Use of regulators growth and chemicals
- Spraying 2, 4-D of 2 ppm at flowering stage makes parthenocarpy fruit, fruits ripen quickly and the yield increases.
- Spraying of 4 PCPA (Para-chlorophenoxy acetic acid) (20ppm) promotes fruit set in brinjal.
- NAA (60ppm) alone or in combination with BA (30ppm) applied on open flowers improved fruit set.
- Ascorbic acid, GA3, IAA and thiourea advances the flowering by 4-5 days.
- Calyx withering
The disorder is seen from mid-February to April in which the fruit color of the plant is light brown to red and the fruit loses its luster so that the fruit does not get the market value. The affected fruits have much higher calcium and nitrate content than healthy ones.
2. Poor fruit set
Brinjal usually has four types of flowers like long styled, medium styled, pseudo short styled and short styled floral. Of these pseudo styled and short styled flowers do not sett fruits. Only fruiting occurs in long styled and medium styled. In brinjal, flowering are usually in a single (solitary) or cluster when the flowers are single, most of these flowers are long styled or medium styled, but when they are in a bunch or cluster, medium styled and pseudo short styled or short styled flowers are appear and the pseudo short, short styled flowers are more than medium styled flowers and have a ratio of 3-4:1.
This disorder can be reduced by spraying PGR on brinjal as pseudo short styled is forced to fruit setting. While short styled flowers are completely sterile.
- Spraying 2 ppm 2,4-D at the time of flowering on plants increases the fruit setting.
- Spraying of 60 ppm NAA or 500 ppm PCPA (Parachloroacetic acid) also boosts the fruit setting.
The brinjal harvesting should be done at a proper stage when it takes full size and colour, soft and tender. Fruits are plucked with stems. Harvesting of brinjal is done at intervals of 7 to 10 days.
The yield of brinjal is depends on the varieties, climate and duration of the crop. Normally 20 -30 tons/hac from the early varieties. 20-30 tons /hac from long-term varieties.
Brinjal can be stored at 8-100C temperatures for 4 weeks for this, the concentration of CO2 is kept at 5% and humidity is 85-95%.
Watch Lecture Video:-
- Phomopsis Blight (Phomopsis vexans):
It is the main disease of brinjal. it has brown, round and oval spots on all parts of the plant, which begin to grow over time and cover the entire plant and some time fruiting also stop.
- Resistant varieties should be grown.
- A long crop rotation should be adopted.
- Hot water treatment of seed at 500C for 25 minutes.
- Spraying of fungicide should be sprayed in the nursery and farm.
2. Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum):
The plant’s leaf becomes yellow and the plant starts to wilt, and its growth stop.
- Resistant varieties should be grown like Pusa Purple Long etc.
- A long crop rotation should be adopted.
3. Damping off (Phytopthora sp. Or Phythium sp.):
This disease more affected inside the nursery, the stem of the plant is thawed from the area near to ground or collor region and the plant falls into the ground and dies.
- The soil of the nursery should be sterilize before sowing with formalin or a copper fungicides.
- Before sowing seeds should be treated with seresen or agarosan @2gm/Kg seed.
4. Little leaf (Mycoplasma):
In this disease, the leaves of the plant remain small and the flowers are also deformed. Leaf hopper is the carrier of the disease.
- The affected parts of the plant should be cut and destroyed.
- Spraying pesticides such as folidon or rogor should be for the control of leaf hopper.
Insect Pest Management
- Shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbnalis):
The larvae of light pink color are bored in the terminal shoot in the initial stage of the plant as a result of which the shoots wither and dry. In later stage, it bores into the young fruits by making holes and feeds inside which makes the fruits unfit for human consumption.
- The affected branch should be cut and destroyed along with the insect.
- Lindane should be sprayed with a solution of 11 ml in 9 litres of water.
- Carberyl should be sprayed 0.2% at intervals of 2 weeks.
2. Leaf Roller:
Grub/ adult eat up regular area of leaves. Leaf begins to roll with the effect of this insect.
- Affected leaves should be collected and destroyed
- Endosulfan or Rovor should be sprayed.