To study the plant propagation by ground layering

Horticulture Guruji

Exercise 9

To study the plant propagation by ground layering

HORT 111

Layering: – Layering is the development of roots on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant. The rooted stem is then detached and becomes a new plant growing on its own roots.

Material Required

  • Grafting Knife
  • Secature
  • Plant Material


1) Tip layering: This is usually used in plants that have a trailing type of branches. It is very similar to simple layering. Examples of plants propagated by tip layering include purple and black raspberries, and trailing blackberries.

Tip Layering
Tip Layering

Procedure: Dig a pit 3 to 4 inches deep. Insert the tip of the current season’s shoot/branch into it and cover it with soil. The tip first moves down, then turns sharply and then moves up. Roots are formed at the bend. Again the curved tip becomes a new plant. Cut it off from the parent plant after it has rooted and planted it in late winter or early spring.


2) Simple Layering: In this method, a branch is bent to the ground and part of it is covered with soil, leaving the tip of the branch is exposed. The root begins in the bent and buried part. The rooted stem is detached from the parent tree after sufficient time for root formation. eg. Bougainvillea, Jasmine, Rangoon Creeper.

Simple Layering
Simple Layering

Procedure: Select a healthy, flexible, and sufficiently long (50 to 60 cm) branch towards the base of the plant. The selected branch should be close to the ground. Make a sharp, slanting inward and upward cut 1.5 to 2.5 cm below a node about 15 to 30 cm from the tip and insert a small piece of wood splinter into it. Bend the branch gently to the ground so that the treated part can be easily inserted into the soil. Cover the treated area with soil. To hold the branch in place, lower the twig and place a brick stone on the covered soil.

Place vertical support in the soil on the side of the buried branch and tie off the top of the branch to keep it straight. Water the buried area regularly to keep it completely moist until the root begins. After sufficient root formation, separate the layer by cutting it just below the root zone.


3) Mound (stool) Layering: In this method, a plant is cut back to ground level during the dormant season and soil is piled around the base of the newly growing shoots/branches. After giving sufficient time for root initiation, the individual rooted cuttings are separated from the parent plant and planted in the nursery. eg. Apple Roots, Guava, Lychee, Quince.

Mound Layering
Mound Layering

Procedure: Select the plant for mound layering or plant a rooted cutting in the trench and let it grow for a year. Cut the plant to 2.5 cm above ground level just before growth begins. Allow new shoots/branches to develop. When these shoots are 7 to 15 cm tall, tie them to the base and remove the ring-like bark (girdle) from the base of these shoots and treat the area with the recommended growth regulator and draw up the loose soil around each shoot to half its height. Put it till When these shoots/branches become 20 to 25 cm tall, add soil again at half their height. When the shoots/branches grow to a height of about 35 to 45 cm, add soil again. Water the heaped soil regularly and allow enough time for roots to emerge. After sufficient root formation, remove the soil and cut the rooted twigs separately from their base. Plant the rooted twigs in pots or suitable containers.

References cited

  1. Commercial Fruits. By S. P. Singh
  2. A text book on Pomology, Vol,1. by T. K. Chattapadhya
  3. Tropical Horticulture, Vol.1, by T. K. Bose, S. K. Mitra, A. A. Farooqui and M. K. Sadhu

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