To study the plant propagation by grafting
Grafting: – Grafting is a technique of propagation in which the scion branch (a twig with more than one bud) and rootstock are joined in such a way that they can unite and later develop into a successful plant.
- Grafting Knife
- Plant Material
- Polythene tape (Strip)
- Veneer grafting:- This is also a type of side grafting with slight modifications. It is widely used for grafting small potted plants and for in-situ grafting. Example avocado, mango, etc. During May and September, this system is quite successful.
Procedure:- In this method, a terminal branch of length 10-15 cm having the thickness of pencil is used as a scion. The swollen branch is used as a scion. For this, about 10 days before grafting, leaves are removed from the scion branch to make the bud swollen. Make a shallow cut on the rootstock, in the internodal region, at the desired height, running to a length of about 2.5 to 5 cm. Make a small, internal cut on one side cutting the first cut at the base of the first cut and removing a piece of wood and bark. On the scion, towards the base, make a long (2.5-5.0cm), oblique cut on one side, and a short, inward cut on the other side.
The incisions made on the rootstock and the scion should be of equal size so that the cambium layers are matched as closely as possible. Insert the scion into the rootstock in such a way that contact with cambium is established on at least one side, and tie them tightly. After the union is complete, cut off the rootstock above the graft union either in successive steps or all at once.
- Whip Grafting: – Whip grafting (also called splice grafting) is one of the oldest known methods of asexual propagation. It is the major propagation method used on apples and widely used in pears. Whip grafting season is from February to mid-March in most regions, or when the rootstock is dormant.
Procedure: – seedling rootstock of 1 to 2 years of age and up to 1 inch in diameter is commonly used for whip grafting purposes. The graft is done about 4 to 6 inches above the root. Pull the blade of the knife upward at an angle of about 45O, making a smooth and straight diagonal cut. This slanting straight, clean-cut should be 2 to 3 inches long. Try to make this cut with a flick of the knife. Keeping the knife blade 2-3 inches above the bottom end, cut equal diagonals on the scion. Slip the plain cut surface of the scion over the slant cut of the rootstock until the cut is even. Wrap the graft area securely with polythene tape or special grafting tape.
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